A mountain is a large land form that rises above the surrounding land , usually in the form of a peak.All the great mountains on the earth are Himalayas, Alps,Rockies and Andes. Most geologists classify a mountain as a land form that rises at least 1,000 feet (300 meters) or more above its surrounding area. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. Mountain ranges are found on every continent of the world.They usually have steep, sloping sides and sharp or rounded ridges, and a top point, called a peak or summit. A mountain range is a series or chain of mountains that are close together.The world’s tallest mountain technically is not Mount Everest. Mount Everest is the tallest mountain above sea level, but if we’re talking sheer height here, base to summit, then the tallest mountain is Mauna Kea,it is located in the island of Hawaii. Here’s how it breaks down: Everest stands 29,035 feet above sea level. Mountains are divided into four main types: upwarped, volcanic, fault-block, and folded (complex). Upwarped mountains form from pressure under the earth’s crust pushing upward into a peak .the Volcanic mountains are formed from eruptions of hot magma from the earth’s core.The 3 main mountains are :-
1.) Fold Mountains -The most common type of mountain in the world are called fold mountains. When you see vast mountain ranges stretching on for thousands of kilometres. Fold mountains are formed when 2 of the Earth’s tectonic plates collide head on . The edges of each tectonic plate crumple and buckle and these create the mountains. Some examples of fold mountain ranges are the Rocky Mountains in North America, and the Himalayan Mountains in Asia.
2.) Block Mountains -Block mountains are created when faults or cracks in the Earth’s crust force materials upward and are displaced vertically. The uplifted blocks are termed as horsts and the lowered blocks are known as graben. The Great African Rift Valley ,The Rhine Valley and the Vosges mountain in Europe are examples.
3.) Volcanic Mountain – Volcanic mountains are created when magma from beneath the Earth makes its way to the surface. When does get the surface, the magma erupts as lava, ash, rock and volcanic gases. This material builds up around the volcanic vent, building up a mountain. Mount Kilimanjaro (Tanzania) is an example of a volcanic mountain.
4.) Dome Mountain – A dome mountain is a nearly circular folded mountain. They are formed from hot molten material (magma) rising from the Earth’s mantle into the crust that pushes overlying sedimentary rock layers upward to form a “dome” shape,Unlike a volcano, the magma typically does not reach the Earth’s surface.Dome mountains are not found in mountain belts such as the Himalayas or the Appalachians. Instead, they are individual, isolated structures that tend to occur in areas of essentially flat-lying sedimentary rocks. the example of a dome mountain is Adirondack Mountains.